The technological task of social work is to identify the social problem and, with the help of the tools and means available to the social services, to timely adjust the actions of the social worker and the behavior of the social work object to provide him with social assistance. The nature of the social problem is the most important factor on which the determination of the contents, tools, forms and methods of social work with the client depends.
The social problem is a complex cognitive task, the solution of which leads to significant theoretical or practical results. To solve it, you need relevant information about the object of social impact, about the conditions, circumstances and other factors that affect his life, state and behavior.
Social problems can be global in nature, affecting the interests of a large part of humanity. So, demographic, ecological, technogenic, food, energy and other problems are now becoming global, and their resolution requires the participation of most of the states of our planet.
Social problems can concern the interests of individual or several social systems. For example, social crises that apply to individual countries, ethnic-ethnic communities, associations, blocs or groupings.
Problems can extend to certain spheres of life of a group of people or personalities. These can be problems that cover the socio-economic, socio-political, spiritual or social sphere of people’s life.
Some people consider a social problem when they cannot have fun play for free online, for some it Is a lot more complicated: for social work, personal problems arising in the process of interaction between the individual and the social environment acquire special significance. Social factors are affected by all factors that activate (or block) the protection of the social interests of the individual, the realization of her needs.
One of the most important conditions for solving the social problem is its precise formulation. If the problem is correctly formulated, then, first, it allows you to search for missing information in the right direction; secondly, it ensures the selection of the optimal tools for social impact, and, consequently, the effectiveness of social work. One of the most important requirements for the formulation of a social problem is its validity. It must flow from real needs and assumptions. The lack of connection with real practical or theoretical needs makes the problem arbitrary, far-fetched.
Precisely formulated problem acts as the initial, initial link in the complex cognitive-analytical activity of social services and organizers of social work.
The practical need and importance of the social problem not only intensify the activity of specialists in social services, mobilize their intellectual, organizational and physical potential, but also give creative solutions to innovative solutions.
The solution to any problem is ultimately to resolve existing internal or external contradictions.
Social contradiction is the interaction of mutually exclusive sides or trends in the phenomena of social life, the interaction of opposites. It is primarily the result of the mismatch of the interests of people or social groups in their joint livelihoods. The manifestation of social contradictions depends on the specifics of the interaction of the opposing sides (tendencies), on the conditions, the situation in which it occurs, and on the degree of aggravation.
In the absence of neutralizing factors, social contradiction develops, reaching extreme degrees of aggravation.
In its development, the contradiction goes through several stages.
- The stage of identity. It is characterized by the possibility of a contradiction due to the presence of even insignificant differences.
- The stage of significant differences. It is characterized by the growth of insignificant differences in essential and their periodic manifestation.
- Stage of opposites. This stage is characterized by the polarization of antagonism in relations, the development of significant differences in the mutual opposites.
- The stage of conflict. At this stage, the relationship between the parties reaches an extreme degree of aggravation and reaches a degree of open confrontation.
It is clear that any person in the process of vital activity enters into marital and family relations, in relationships with parents, relatives, with children, friends and comrades, with a team and various associations, public organizations, and, finally, society as a whole. In the process of these relationships, due to objectively existing personal differences in the needs, interests, degree of their implementation, problems can arise. The personal problem is essentially a clash between the claims of a person and the degree of their satisfaction. Such a clash may be material or spiritual in nature, physiological or moral, social or psychological, industrial or domestic, and sometimes even a combination of them.
Experience shows that the recognition, formulation and resolution of personal problems constitute the content of the main function of a specialist in social work. Solving personal problems is not only difficult, but also delicate, directly affecting the issues of psychology, law, morality, skill and tact to penetrate into the world of personal life and influence it. Therefore, the creative use of technological techniques, the inadmissibility of working with people stamps and patterns, bureaucracy and callousness, the ability to make adjustments to the technological process is an important indicator of the professionalism of specialists in social work.